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Former Google CEO Eric Schmidt listed the ‘3 big failures’ he sees in tech startups today – Business Insider

Former Google CEO Eric Schmidt has listed the three “big failures” in tech entrepreneurship around the world.

Schmidt outlined the failings in a speech he gave at the Centre for Entrepreneurs in London this week. He later expanded on his thoughts in an interview with former BBC News boss James Harding.

Below are the three mistakes he outlined, with quotes taken from both a draft of his speech seen by Business Insider, and comments he delivered on the night.

1. People stick to who and what they know

“Far too often, we invest mostly in people we already know, who are working in very narrow disciplines,” Schmidt wrote in his draft.

In his speech, Schmidt pegged this point closely to a need for diversity and inclusion. He said companies need to be open to bringing in people from other countries and backgrounds.

He said entrepreneurship won’t flourish if people are “going to one institution, hiring only those people, and only — if I can be blunt — only white males.”

During the Q&A, Schmidt specifically addressed the gender imbalance in the tech industry. He said there’s a reason to be optimistic about women’s representation in tech improving, predicting that tech’s gender imbalance will vanish in one generation.

2. Too much focus on product and not on platforms

“We frequently don’t build the best technology platforms to tackle big social challenges, because often there is no immediate promise of commercial return,” Schmidt wrote in his draft.

“There are a million e-commerce apps but not enough speciality platforms for safely sharing and analyzing data on homelessness, climate change or refugees.”

Schmidt’s omitted this mention of socially conscious tech from his final speech, but did say that he sees a lot of innovation coming out of network platforms, which allow people to connect and pool data, because “the barrier to entry for these startups is very, very low.”

3. Companies aren’t partnering up early enough

Finally, Schmidt wrote in his draft that tech startups don’t partner enough with other companies in the modern, hyper-connected world. “It’s impossible to think about any major challenge for society in a silo,” he wrote.

He said in his speech that tech firms have to be ready to partner “fairly early.” He gave the example of a startup that wants to build homecare robots.

“The market for homecare robots is going to be very, very large. The problem is that you need visual systems, and machine learning systems, and listening systems, and motor systems, and so forth. You’re not going to be able to do it with three people,” he said.

After detailing his failures in tech entrepreneurship, Schmidt laid out what he views as the solution. He referred back to the Renaissance in Europe, saying people turned their hand to all sorts of disciplines, from science, to art, to business.

Source : https://www.businessinsider.com/eric-schmidt-3-big-failures-he-sees-in-tech-entrepreneurship-2018-11

How redesigning an enterprise product taught me to extend myself – Instacart

As designers, we want to work on problems that are intriguing and “game-changing”. All too often, we limit the “game-changing” category to a handful of consumer-facing mobile apps and social networks. The truth is: enterprise software gives designers a unique set of complex problems to solve. Enterprise platforms usually have a savvy set of users with very specific needs — needs that, when addressed, often affect a business’s bottom line.

One of my first projects as a product designer here at Instacart was to redesign elements of our inventory management tool for retailers (e.g. Kroger, Publix, Safeway, Costco, etc.). As I worked on the project more and more, I learned that Enterprise tools are full of gnarly complexity and often present opportunities to practice deep thought. As Jonathan, one of our current enterprise platform designers said —

The greater the complexity, the greater the opportunity to find elegance.

New login screen

As we scoped the project we found that the existing product wasn’t enabling retailers to manage their inventories as concisely and efficiently as they could. We found retailer users were relying on customer support to help carry out smaller tasks. Our goal with the redesign was to build and deliver a better experience that would enable retailers to manage their inventory more easily and grow their business with Instacart.

The first step in redesigning was to understand the flow of the current product. We mapped out the journey of a partner going through the tool and spoke with the PMs to figure out what we could incorporate into the roadmap.

Overview of the older version of the retailer tool

Once we had a good understanding of the lay of the land, engineering resources, and retailers’ needs, we got into the weeds. Here are a few improvements we made to the tool —

Aisle and department management for Retailers

We used the department tiles feature from our customer-facing product as the catalog’s landing page (1.0 above). With this, we worked to:

  • Refine our visual style
  • Present retailers with an actionable page on the get-go
  • Make it quick and easy to add, delete, and modify items
New Departments page for the Partner Tool. Responsive tiles allow partners to view and edit their Aisles and Departments quickly.

Establishing Overall Hierarchy

Older item search page
Beverages > Coffee returns a list of coffees from the retailer’s catalog

Our solution simplified a few things:

  • A search bar rests atop the product to help find and add items without having to be on this specific page. It pops up a modal that offers a search and add experience. This was visually prioritized since it’s the most common action taken by retailers
  • Decoupled search flow and “Add new product” flow to streamline the workflows
  • Pagination, which was originally on the top and bottom, is now pinned to the bottom of the page for easy navigation
  • We also rethought the information hierarchy on this page. In the example below, the retailer is in the “Beverages” aisle under the “Coffee” item category, which is on the top left. They are editing or adding the item “Eight O’Clock Coffee,” which is the page title. This title is bigger to anchor the user on the page and improve navigation throughout the platform
Focused view of top bar. The “New Product” button is disabled since this is a view to add products

Achieving Clarity

While it’s great that the older Item Details page was partitioned into sections, from an IA perspective, it offered challenges for two reasons:

  1. The category grouping didn’t make sense to retailers
  2. Retailers had to read the information vertically but digest it horizontally and vertically
Older version of Item Details page

To address this, we broke down the sections into what’s truly necessary. From there, we identified four main categories of information that the data fell under:

  1. Images — This is first to encourage retailers to add product photos
  2. Basic Info — Name, brand, size, and unit
  3. Item description — Below the item description field, we offered the description seen on the original package (where the data was available) to help guide them as they wrote
  4. Product attributes — help better categorize the product (e.g. Kosher)

Sources now pop up on the top right of the input fields so the editor knows who last made changes.


Takeaways

Seeking validation through numbers is always fantastic. We did a small beta launch of this product and saw an increase in weekly engagement and decrease in support requests.

I learned that designing enterprise products helps you extend yourself as a visual designer and deep product thinker. I approached this project as an opportunity to break down complex interactions and bring visual elegance to a product through thoughtful design. To this day, it remains one of my favorite projects at Instacart as it stretched my thinking and enhanced my visual design chops. Most importantly, it taught me to look at Enterprise tools in a new light; now when I look at them, I am able to appreciate the complexity within

Source: https://tech.instacart.com/how-redesigning-an-enterprise-product-taught-me-to-extend-myself-8f83d72ebcdf

What Do Investors Need to Know About the Future of LED Grow Light Technology – Agfund

The horticultural lighting market is growing, and growing rapidly. According to a September press release from Report Linker, a market research firm specializing in agribusiness, the horticultural lighting market is estimated grow from a $2.43 billion market this year to $6.21 billion in 2023.

One of the key factors driving current market sector growth is increased development of LED grow light technology. LEDs (light emitting diodes) were first developed in the 1950s as a smaller and longer-lasting source of light compared to the traditional incandescent light bulb invented by Thomas Edison in 1879.

LEDs last longer, give off less heat, and are more efficient converting energy to light compared to other types of lights, all features that can result in higher yields and profits for indoor growers.

But until recently, LEDs were only used to grow plants indoors experimentally, largely because the cost was still too high for commercial businesses. Many commercial growers still use HID (High Intensity Discharge) lights such as High Pressure Sodium, Metal Halide, and Ceramic Metal Halide; all lights that have a high power output but are less durable than LED lights, generate far more heat, and have less customizable light spectra.

Today, LEDs are fast becoming the dominant horticultural lighting solution. This is due primarily to the one-million fold decrease in fabrication cost of semiconductor chips used to make LED lights since 1954.

For investors more familiar with field-based agriculture, it can certainly be a minefield to know where LED lighting technology for horticulture is going in the future. Although it is no longer the “early days” of LED technology development, current trends are still shaping the future of LED technology.

So what does the intelligent agtech investor need to know about the current state and future of LED grow light technology?

I interviewed Jeff Mastin, director of R&D at Total Grow LED Lighting, to discuss what the future of LED grow light technology for agriculture looks like, and how investors can use current trends to their advantage in the future.

What is your background – how did you get involved in grow light technology at Total Grow?

The company behind TotalGrow is called Venntis Technologies. Venntis has, and still does, specialize in integrating touch-sensing semiconductor technologies into applications.

Most people don’t realize LEDs are semiconductors; you can also use them for touch-sensing technologies, so there’s a strong bridge to agricultural LED technology.

Some of the biggest technical challenges in utilizing LEDs effectively for agriculture include LED glaring, shadowing and color separation.

We have used our expertise in touch-sensing LEDs to expand into horticultural LEDs, and we have developed technology that addresses the above challenges better, giving better control over the spectrum that the LED makes and the directional output of the light in a way that a standard LED by itself can’t do.

My personal background is in biology. When TotalGrow started exploring the horticultural world, that’s where being a biologist was a natural fit to take a lead on the science and the research side of the development process for the product; that was about 7 years ago now.

If you were going to distill your technical focus into trends that you’re seeing in the horticultural lighting space, what are the main trends to keep an eye on?

The horticultural lighting industry is really becoming revolutionized because of LEDs. Less than 10 years ago, LEDs in the horticultural world were mainly a research tool and a novelty.

In the past, they were not efficient enough and they were definitely not affordable enough yet to really consider them an economical general commercial light source.

But that is very quickly changing. The efficiencies are going up and prices down and they are really right now hitting the tipping point where for a lot of applications, but definitely not all applications, the LED world is starting to take over horticulture and indoor agriculture.

How do you view the translation of those trends into actionable points? For investors or technology developers in the agriculture technology space, how do they make sure that the LED light technology they are investing in isn’t going to be obsolete in a year or two?

With LEDs, the key question is still cost-efficiency, and there’s only so far the technology can improve.

Why? There are physical limitations. You can’t make a 100% efficient product that turns every bit of electricity into photons of light. At this point, the efficiency level of the top of line LEDs are up over 50%.

Can we ever get up to 70 or 80%? Probably not any time soon with an end-product, not one that’s going to be affordable and economical generally speaking.

So to answer your question, it’s not a category where you’re going to say, “well this is obsolete, I can get something three times better now.” The performance improvements will be more marginal in the future.

Ten years from now the cost will be cheaper. But that again doesn’t make current LED technologies obsolete. In terms of that fear, I don’t think people have to worry about current LED light technologies becoming obsolete.

In a large commercial vertical farming set up, what is the ballpark cost of horticultural LEDs currently?

To give just an order of magnitude sort of number, you’re probably going to be someplace in the $30 per square foot number for lights for a large facility. It can be half that or it can be double that.

That’s just talking within the realm of common vertical farming plants like greens and herbs, or other plants similar in size and lighting needs.

If you start talking about tomatoes or medicinal plants, then the ability to use higher light levels and have the plants make good use of it skyrockets. You can go four times higher with some of those other plants, and for good reason.

What type of horticultural lighting applications are LEDs still not the best solution for now and in the foreseeable future?

There are at least 3 areas where LEDs still may not make sense now and in the near future.

First, if the LED lights are not used often enough. The more hours per year the lights are used, the more quickly they return on their investment from power savings and reduced maintenance. Some applications only need a few weeks of lighting per year, which makes a cheaper solution appropriate.

Second, in some greenhouse applications, LED’s may not be the best choice for some time to come. Cheaper lights like high-pressure sodium have more of a role in greenhouses where hours of use are less and higher hang heights are possible. (Many greenhouses will still benefit strongly from LEDs, but the economics and other considerations make it important to consider both options in greenhouses.)

Lastly, some plants are not the best in vertical farming styles of growing where LEDs have their most drastic advantages. At least at this point it is not common to attempt to grow larger fruiting plants like tomatoes or cucumbers totally indoors, though when attempted that is still more practical with LEDs than legacy lights.

Source : https://agfundernews.com/what-do-investors-need-to-know-about-the-future-of-led-grow-light-technology.html/

6 Biases Holding You Back From Rational Thinking – Robert Greene

Emotions are continually affecting our thought processes and decisions, below the level of our awareness. And the most common emotion of them all is the desire for pleasure and the avoidance of pain. Our thoughts almost inevitably revolve around this desire; we simply recoil from entertaining ideas that are unpleasant or painful to us. We imagine we are looking for the truth, or being realistic, when in fact we are holding on to ideas that bring a release from tension and soothe our egos, make us feel superior. This pleasure principle in thinking is the source of all of our mental biases. If you believe that you are somehow immune to any of the following biases, it is simply an example of the pleasure principle in action. Instead, it is best to search and see how they continually operate inside of you, as well as learn how to identify such irrationality in others.

These biases, by distorting reality, lead to the mistakes and ineffective decisions that plague our lives. Being aware of them, we can begin to counterbalance their effects.

1) Confirmation Bias

I look at the evidence and arrive at my decisions through more or less rational processes.

To hold an idea and convince ourselves we arrived at it rationally, we go in search of evidence to support our view. What could be more objective or scientific? But because of the pleasure principle and its unconscious influence, we manage to find that evidence that confirms what we want to believe. This is known as confirmation bias.

We can see this at work in people’s plans, particularly those with high stakes. A plan is designed to lead to a positive, desired objective. If people considered the possible negative and positive consequences equally, they might find it hard to take any action. Inevitably they veer towards information that confirms the desired positive result, the rosy scenario, without realizing it. We also see this at work when people are supposedly asking for advice. This is the bane of most consultants. In the end, people want to hear their own ideas and preferences confirmed by an expert opinion. They will interpret what you say in light of what they want to hear; and if your advice runs counter to their desires, they will find some way to dismiss your opinion, your so-called expertise. The more powerful the person, the more they are subject to this form of the confirmation bias.

When investigating confirmation bias in the world take a look at theories that seem a little too good to be true. Statistics and studies are trotted out to prove them, which are not very difficult to find, once you are convinced of the rightness of your argument. On the Internet, it is easy to find studies that support both sides of an argument. In general, you should never accept the validity of people’s ideas because they have supplied “evidence.” Instead, examine the evidence yourself in the cold light of day, with as much skepticism as you can muster. Your first impulse should always be to find the evidence that disconfirms your most cherished beliefs and those of others. That is true science.

2) Conviction Bias

I believe in this idea so strongly. It must be true.

We hold on to an idea that is secretly pleasing to us, but deep inside we might have some doubts as to its truth and so we go an extra mile to convince ourselves — to believe in it with great vehemence, and to loudly contradict anyone who challenges us. How can our idea not be true if it brings out of us such energy to defend it, we tell ourselves? This bias is revealed even more clearly in our relationship to leaders — if they express an opinion with heated words and gestures, colorful metaphors and entertaining anecdotes, and a deep well of conviction, it must mean they have examined the idea carefully and therefore express it with such certainty. Those on the other hand who express nuances, whose tone is more hesitant, reveal weakness and self-doubt. They are probably lying, or so we think. This bias makes us prone to salesmen and demagogues who display conviction as a way to convince and deceive. They know that people are hungry for entertainment, so they cloak their half-truths with dramatic effects.

3) Appearance Bias

I understand the people I deal with; I see them just as they are.

We do not see people as they are, but as they appear to us. And these appearances are usually misleading. First, people have trained themselves in social situations to present the front that is appropriate and that will be judged positively. They seem to be in favor of the noblest causes, always presenting themselves as hardworking and conscientious. We take these masks for reality. Second, we are prone to fall for the halo effect — when we see certain negative or positive qualities in a person (social awkwardness, intelligence), other positive or negative qualities are implied that fit with this. People who are good looking generally seem more trustworthy, particularly politicians. If a person is successful, we imagine they are probably also ethical, conscientious and deserving of their good fortune. This obscures the fact that many people who get ahead have done so by doing less than moral actions, which they cleverly disguise from view.

4) The Group Bias

My ideas are my own. I do not listen to the group. I am not a conformist.

We are social animals by nature. The feeling of isolation, of difference from the group, is depressing and terrifying. We experience tremendous relief to find others who think the same way as we do. In fact, we are motivated to take up ideas and opinions because they bring us this relief. We are unaware of this pull and so imagine we have come to certain ideas completely on our own. Look at people that support one party or the other, one ideology — a noticeable orthodoxy or correctness prevails, without anyone saying anything or applying overt pressure. If someone is on the right or the left, their opinions will almost always follow the same direction on dozens of issues, as if by magic, and yet few would ever admit this influence on their thought patterns.

5) The Blame Bias

I learn from my experience and mistakes.

Mistakes and failures elicit the need to explain. We want to learn the lesson and not repeat the experience. But in truth, we do not like to look too closely at what we did; our introspection is limited. Our natural response is to blame others, circumstances, or a momentary lapse of judgment. The reason for this bias is that it is often too painful to look at our mistakes. It calls into question our feelings of superiority. It pokes at our ego. We go through the motions, pretending to reflect on what we did. But with the passage of time, the pleasure principle rises and we forget what small part in the mistake we ascribed to ourselves. Desire and emotion will blind us yet again, and we will repeat exactly the same mistake and go through the same mild recriminating process, followed by forgetfulness, until we die. If people truly learned from their experience, we would find few mistakes in the world, and career paths that ascend ever upward.

6) Superiority Bias

I’m different. I’m more rational than others, more ethical as well.

Few would say this to people in conversation. It sounds arrogant. But in numerous opinion polls and studies, when asked to compare themselves to others, people generally express a variation of this. It’s the equivalent of an optical illusion — we cannot seem to see our faults and irrationalities, only those of others. So, for instance, we’ll easily believe that those in the other political party do not come to their opinions based on rational principles, but those on our side have done so. On the ethical front, few will ever admit that they have resorted to deception or manipulation in their work, or have been clever and strategic in their career advancement. Everything they’ve got, or so they think, comes from natural talent and hard work. But with other people, we are quick to ascribe to them all kinds of Machiavellian tactics. This allows us to justify whatever we do, no matter the results.

We feel a tremendous pull to imagine ourselves as rational, decent, and ethical. These are qualities highly promoted in the culture. To show signs otherwise is to risk great disapproval. If all of this were true — if people were rational and morally superior — the world would be suffused with goodness and peace. We know, however, the reality, and so some people, perhaps all of us, are merely deceiving ourselves. Rationality and ethical qualities must be achieved through awareness and effort. They do not come naturally. They come through a maturation process.

Source : https://medium.com/the-mission/6-biases-holding-you-back-from-rational-thinking-f2eddd35fd0f

Here Are the Top Five Questions CEOs Ask About AI – CIO

Recently in a risk management meeting, I watched a data scientist explain to a group of executives why convolutional neural networks were the algorithm of choice to help discover fraudulent transactions. The executives—all of whom agreed that the company needed to invest in artificial intelligence—seemed baffled by the need for so much detail. “How will we know if it’s working?” asked a senior director to the visible relief of his colleagues.

Although they believe AI’s value, many executives are still wondering about its adoption. The following five questions are boardroom staples:

1. “What’s the reporting structure for an AI team?”

Organizational issues are never far from the minds of executives looking to accelerate efficiencies and drive growth. And, while this question isn’t new, the answer might be.

Captivated by the idea of data scientists analyzing potentially competitively-differentiating data, managers often advocate formalizing a data science team as a corporate service. Others assume that AI will fall within an existing analytics or data center-of-excellence (COE).

AI positioning depends on incumbent practices. A retailer’s customer service department designated a group of AI experts to develop “follow the sun chatbots” that would serve the retailer’s increasingly global customer base. Conversely a regional bank considered AI more of an enterprise service, centralizing statisticians and machine learning developers into a separate team reporting to the CIO.

These decisions were vastly different, but they were both the right ones for their respective companies.

Considerations:

  • How unique (e.g., competitively differentiating) is the expected outcome? If the proposed AI effort is seen as strategic, it might be better to create team of subject matter experts and developers with its own budget, headcount, and skills so as not distract from or siphon resources from existing projects.
  • To what extent are internal skills available? If data scientists and AI developers are already clustered within a COE, it might be better to leave the team as-is, hiring additional experts as demand grows.
  • How important will it be to package and brand the results of an AI effort? If AI outcome is a new product or service, it might be better to create a dedicated team that can deliver the product and assume maintenance and enhancement duties as it continues to innovate.

2. “Should we launch our AI effort using some sort of solution, or will coding from scratch distinguish our offering?”

When people hear the term AI they conjure thoughts of smart Menlo Park hipsters stationed at standing desks wearing ear buds in their pierced ears and writing custom code late into the night. Indeed, some version of this scenario is how AI has taken shape in many companies.

Executives tend to romanticize AI development as an intense, heads-down enterprise, forgetting that development planning, market research, data knowledge, and training should also be part of the mix. Coding from scratch might actually prolong AI delivery, especially with the emerging crop of developer toolkits (Amazon Sagemaker and Google Cloud AI are two) that bundle open source routines, APIs, and notebooks into packaged frameworks.

These packages can accelerate productivity, carving weeks or even months off development schedules. Or they can exacerbate collaboration efforts.

Considerations:

  • Is time-to-delivery a success metric? In other words, is there lower tolerance for research or so-called “skunkworks” projects where timeframes and outcomes could be vague?
  • Is there a discrete budget for an AI project? This could make it easier to procure developer SDKs or other productivity tools.
  • How much research will developer toolboxes require? Depending on your company’s level of skill, in the time it takes to research, obtain approval for, procure, and learn an AI developer toolkit your team could have delivered important new functionality.

3. “Do we need a business case for AI?”

It’s all about perspective. AI might be positioned as edgy and disruptive with its own internal brand, signaling a fresh commitment to innovation. Or it could represent the evolution of analytics, the inevitable culmination of past efforts that laid the groundwork for AI.

I’ve noticed that AI projects are considered successful when they are deployed incrementally, when they further an agreed-upon goal, when they deliver something the competition hasn’t done yet, and when they support existing cultural norms.

Considerations:

  • Do other strategic projects require business cases? If they do, decide whether you want AI to be part of the standard cadre of successful strategic initiatives, or to stand on its own.
  • Are business cases generally required for capital expenditures? If so, would bucking the norm make you an innovative disruptor, or an obstinate rule-breaker?
  • How formal is the initiative approval process? The absence of a business case might signal a lack of rigor, jeopardizing funding.
  • What will be sacrificed if you don’t build a business case? Budget? Headcount? Visibility? Prestige?

4. “We’ve had an executive sponsor for nearly every high-profile project. What about AI?”

Incumbent norms once again matter here. But when it comes to AI the level of disruption is often directly proportional to the need for a sponsor.

A senior AI specialist at a health care network decided to take the time to discuss possible AI use cases (medication compliance, readmission reduction, and deep learning diagnostics) with executives “so that they’d know what they’d be in for.” More importantly she knew that the executives who expressed the most interest in the candidate AI undertakings would be the likeliest to promote her new project. “This is a company where you absolutely need someone powerful in your corner,” she explained.

Considerations:

  • Does the company’s funding model require an executive sponsor? Challenging that rule might cost you time, not to mention allies.
  • Have high-impact projects with no executive sponsor failed?  You might not want your AI project to be the first.
  • Is the proposed AI effort specific to a line of business? In this case enlisting an executive sponsor familiar with the business problem AI is slated to solve can be an effective insurance policy.

5. “What practical advice do you have for teams just getting started?”

If you’re new to AI you’ll need to be careful about departing from norms, since this might attract undue attention and distract from promising outcomes. Remember Peter Drucker’s quote about culture eating strategy for breakfast? Going rogue is risky.

On the other hand, positioning AI as disruptive and evolutionary can do wonders for both the external brand as well as internal employee morale, assuring constituents that the company is committed to innovation, and considers emerging tech to be strategic.

Either way, the most important success measures for AI are setting accurate expectations, sharing them often, and addressing questions and concerns without delay.

Considerations:

  • Distribute a high-level delivery schedule. An unbounded research project is not enough. Be sure you’re building something—AI experts agree that execution matters—and be clear about the delivery plan.
  • Help colleagues envision the benefits. Does AI promise first mover advantage? Significant cost reductions? Brand awareness?
  • Explain enough to color in the goal. Building a convolutional neural network to diagnose skin lesions via image scans is a world away from using unsupervised learning to discover unanticipated correlations between customer segments. As one of my clients says, “Don’t let the vague in.”

These days AI has mojo. Companies are getting serious about it in a way they haven’t been before. And the more your executives understand about how it will be deployed—and why—the better the chances for delivering ongoing value.

Source : https://www.cio.com/article/3318639/artificial-intelligence/5-questions-ceos-are-asking-about-ai.html

Why Olam is Deploying Tech First, Then Thinking About CVC – AgFunder

Why Olam is Deploying Tech First, Then Thinking About CVC

“We have realized that some companies have gone down the wrong path by adopting the approach of inventing the problem. They find a technology that’s exciting and try to force-fit that technology for a problem that they don’t have. This is why we want to be very deliberate about the problems first, and then come to technology.”

Suresh Sundararajan is president and group head of strategic investments and shared services at Olam International, the Singapore-headquartered agribusiness giant. Sundararajan is speaking to AgFunderNews ahead of a speaking slot at the Rethink AgriFood Innovation Week in Singapore later this month.

“I’ll give you an example of blockchain. There’s so much hype about blockchain around the world. And in our industry, there are a few companies that have done some pilots. But we have not gone down that route, because we have not seen a tangible, scalable use case that could give us significant benefits for adopting blockchain.”

If one company could benefit from the efficiencies new technology can bring, it’s Olam, with a complex supply chain that grows, sources, processes, manufactures, transports, trades and markets 47 different agrifood products across 70 countries. These include commodities like coffee, cotton, cocoa, and palm oil that are farmed by over 4 million farmers globally, most of which are smallholders in developing countries.

In-House Tech

But the third largest agribusiness in the world has been noticeably absent from the agrifood corporate venture capital scene in recent years, instead opting mostly to build its own technology solutions in-house. (It did deploy Phytech’s FitBit for crops in Australia in 2016 as an outside example.)

For traceability, and perhaps an alternative to blockchain-enabled technology, there’s Olam AtSource, with a digital dashboard that provides Olam customers with access to rich data, advanced foot-printing, and granular traceability. Olam hopes AtSource will help its customers “meet multiple social and environmental targets thereby increasing resilience in supply chains.”

Olam has also developed and deployed the Olam Farmer Information System (OFIS), a smallholder farm data collection platform providing smallholders with management tools and Olam customers with information about the provenance of products.

“OFIS solves the information issue by providing a revolutionary tech innovation for collecting and analyzing first mile data,” Brayn-Smith told AgFunderNews when OFIS launched in 2017. “We are able to register thousands of smallholders, GPS map their farms and local infrastructure, collect all types of farm gate level data such as the age of trees, and record every training intervention.”

This product is a clear example of a “transformational technology” that solves a problem for Olam and also gives the business efficiencies that could impact the bottom line, according to Sundararajan.

And Olam has built on top of OFIS to transact directly with cocoa farmers in Indonesia where Olam is publishing prices to around 30,000 farmers and buying cocoa directly from them.

“Before technology was available, it was almost impossible for any company to buy directly from the farmers, just because of the sheer volume and number of farmers. But, with technology, you have a far better reach, which will allow us to directly communicate with them,” Sundararajan tells AgFunderNews.

“Now the farmer can just accept a price and type in that he wants to supply it, and we arrange the complete logistics to pick up the cocoa from the farmer,” he says adding that the company’s country heads in other parts of the world are keen to launch this service in their markets. The company is starting next in Peru, then Guatemala, Colombia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria.

Olam as Disruptor

While Olam deployed OFIS to solve for a problem, it also gives the company the opportunity to be disruptive in the markets it serves, according to Sundararajan.

As well as looking for transformational ways to solve specific problems, Olam also looks at “any ideas we have that will give Olam an opportunity to disrupt our own industry. So, we end up being a disrupter and not be at the risk of being disrupted by a new player,” he says.

“This fundamental shift in terms of Olam getting an opportunity to directly interact and transact with farmers is a starting point of disruption for us. This is a very complex point, which will bring into play several technologies for us to be able to successfully scale it.”

Going down this route, Sundararajan says Olam could end up providing farmers with new services and creating “separate streams of revenue that has nothing to do with what we were doing five or 10 years back.”

In this vein, Olam is working on deploying a technology to detect moisture — and therefore quality — in its commodities. The company is also looking at financial tools for its farmers.

“Looking at our business model, we believe that we have a few very good opportunities at the first mile of the supply chain and the last mile of the supply chain to change the way we compete,” says Sundararajan. “We believe that since we have control of the supply chain end-to-end, we can use technology to differentiate our service to customers in a way that our competitors will find difficult to replicate.”

Informal Startup Interactions

Olam does interact with startups on a selective basis, and Sundararajan’s participation in Rethink’s Singapore conference, as well as a hackathon it took part in with Fujitsu in Australia last year, are two examples. Sundararajan said he is considering an idea like The Unilever Foundry, but the company has yet to create a formal process or framework for these interactions. And the same goes for corporate venture capital.

“We believe that our digital journey has to mature much more, where we should demonstrate success within, by implementing the solutions that we’re developing, before even considering investing in venture capital. We believe that we have a very good strategy and a suite of products, stretching across from farm to the factories, to digitize our operations, whether it is a digital buying model, or whether it is spot factories in terms of predictive maintenance or increasing yield or it’s drone imagery from our own plantations, and productivity apps for employees.”

Source : https://agfundernews.com/why-olam-is-deploying-tech-first-then-thinking-about-cvc.html/

Oracle apps make blockchain easier, but consortium challenges remain – Computer World

Moving beyond supply chain proof of concepts still requires bringing ecosystems of enterprises together

Bang on trend and with no shortage of afficiandoes; micro-brewery-made, artisinal beer proved a fitting use case for blockchain technology at Oracle OpenWorld last week.

Alpha Acid Brewing in Belmont, California was showcased as an early adopter of one of Oracle’s new blockchain based applications, Intelligent Track and Trace.

“We can now track materials and premium ingredients from our suppliers and analyse sensor data from the production process for each batch,” said Kyle Bozicevic, owner and brewer at Alpha Acid, which served up thousands of (free) cups of its beer range across the three day event.

“[The] application helps ensure that we are getting the highest quality hops, malt, and yeast, and enables us to create a strong narrative around our products for customers,” he added.

Big Red is hoping it will find an equally thirsty audience for the four supply chain focused blockchain applications it will make available through next year; Intelligent Track and Trace, Lot Lineage and Provenance, Intelligent Cold Chain and Warranty and Usage Tracking.

The use-case-specific SaaS applications are built on Oracle’s Blockchain Cloud Service launched earlier this year (itself based on Linux Foundation’s open source Hyperledger Fabric platform) and connect with its Supply Chain Management (SCM) Cloud, Enterprise Resource Management (ERP) Cloud and other applications.

“Typically when you think about the blockchain it’s about distributed ledger, it’s about digital signatures, it’s about smart contracts; but really the value proposition associated with blockchain is here,” said Rick Jewell, senior vice president, supply chain and manufacturing cloud applications, Oracle, at OpenWorld’s supply chain keynote.

Jewell pointed to a word cloud on a slide featuring phrases like: ‘reduce delays and inefficiencies’, ‘dispute resolution’, ‘proof of delivery’ and ‘expedite payments’.

“Just as we did with IoT – we didn’t stop with the IoT platform, we built IoT applications, we’ve done the same thing here. We have built form-fit blockchain applications that work on top of that,” he added.

The apps will make getting started with blockchain much easier for a business, but there are still significant challenges for them to overcome in taking the technology beyond proof-of-concept; chiefly, all the other businesses they work with.

As Gartner supply chain technology research director Amber Salley explained: “The apps will be as useful as there is an ecosystem committed to using blockchain.”

Consortium challenges

Alpha Acid is one of a number of early-adopters to get early access to the applications. Others named include Arab Jordan Investment Bank, CargoSmart, Certified Origins, Indian Oil, Intelipost, MTO, Neurosoft, Nigeria Customs, Sofbang, Solar Site Design and TradeFin.

CargoSmart is a shipment management software solutions provider in APAC, and begun its blockchain initiative for shipment documentation in July.

Since shipping document handling processes are complex, feature dated paper processes and involve many stakeholders across numerous countries, it is an ideal use case for blockchain CargoSmart CEO Steve Siu told Computerworld.

“We consider blockchain as the digital baseline for the next generation,” Siu said.

“Blockchain is something different – which is to come together to share that information in the first place then think about how the industry would take advantage of that to change the processes, to change the way they work together,” he added.

Getting all the stakeholders on to the blockchain will be a considerable challenge however.

Shipping companies have diverse technical capabilities and data standards, and currently exchange documents in many formats including email, online forms, and electronic data interchange (EDI). On average, a single shipment can involve more than 30 documents exchanged by all parties, often with multiple revisions due to human errors, before it leaves port.

These existing processes are not standardised, despite numerous attempts to do so, but would need to be if blockchain is to be used.

“To drive the industry to change is actually very difficult. That’s why we took this consortium approach, to get the industry together,” Siu added.

The sentiment was echoed by Certified Origin CIO Andrea Biagianti. His company has been using a blockchain application to trace key steps in the supply chain from Italian olive groves to the Bellucci-brand bottled extra virgin olive oil sold in North America.

“We think that the hardest step at the beginning is to build a best practice for all the actors in the supply chain. It is difficult for them to know that they have to work all together with one final scope,” he told Computerworld.

Committed ecosystem?

The requirement to get multiple stakeholders behind a single blockchain solution, could be a limiting factor in the apps’ success, Gartner’s Salley explained.

“Since it is a chain there needs to be multiple parties involved to add ‘links’ to the change. That means that the multiple parties will need to have invested in the systems and processes to make it work,” she said.

Despite the distributed, multi-stakeholder nature of the technology, Oracle will charge just one party, the “top node”, for using the apps and the cost is not based on the number of users on the chain.

“We do not intend on charging based on users, but we intend on charging for the platform itself,” Oracle’s executive vice president, applications product development, Steve Miranda told media.

“And the platform – think of it as the hub – whether that hub is purchased by a single node in the supply chain, the top node, or if that gets purchased by the collective sets of nodes… but because of the nature of the application and the distributed nature of the application, charging on a per user basis like that is counter to the way we expect it to be used. We want it to be used more pervasively not less pervasively,” he said.

Above a certain scale however, Miranda indicated that additional costs could kick in.

“The scale will likely have some sort of transaction charge on top of that but that depends on the blockchain use case,” he explained.

The apps will be interoperable with other blockchain providers with HyperLedger based solutions such as SAP and IBM, Oracle said.

Gartner research into supply-chain-focused blockchain solutions has found the market to be “uncertain, confusing and overly hyped”, while many proposed use cases “may not even need blockchain in the first place”.

A September report from the analyst firm said that a lack of data and governance standards across broad ecosystems of trading partners “will inhibit multi-enterprise collaboration, therefore stalling pilots and diminishing wide adoption”.

Until 2021, 90 per cent of supply chain blockchain initiatives will be proof-of-concepts (such as Commonwealth Bank of Australia’s recent almond shipping experiment) and onboarding challenges will halt 90 per cent of the initiatives across medium to large-scale enterprises, Gartner predicts.

“Blockchain in supply chain is a technology looking for a use case. I think the apps are Oracle’s attempt to create that use case. It is hard to sell blockchain as a platform so by productising it as an app gives a business a starting point to get using blockchain,” Salley said.

Intelligent Track and Trace will be available in the first quarter of next year, with the other apps following through the rest of 2019.

Source : https://www.computerworld.com.au/article/648812/oracle-apps-make-blockchain-easier-consortium-challenges-remain/

 

Augmented reality , the state of art in the industry- Miscible

Miscible.io attended The Augmented World Expo in Europe / Munich , October 2018, here is my report.

What a great #AWE2018 show in Munich, with a strong focus on the industry usage and, of course , the german automotive industry was well represented. Some new , simple but efficient, AR devices , and plenty of good use cases with a confirmed ROI. This edition was PRAGMATIC.

Here are my six take aways from this edition. Enjoy it !

1 – The return of investment of the AR solutions

The use of XR by automotive companies, big pharma, and teachers confirmed some good ROI with some “ready to use” solutions, especially in this domains :

2 – This is still the firstfruits of AR and some improvements are expected for drawbacks

  • Hardware : field of view, contrast/brigtness , 3D asset resolutions
  • Some AR headset are heavy to wear, it can have some consequences on the operator confort and security.
  • Accuracy between virtual and reality overlay / recognition
  • Automation process from Authoring software to build an end user solution.

3 – Challenge of the Authoring

To create specific and advanced AR Apps, there is still some challenges with the content authoring and with the integration to the legacy systems to retrieve master data and 3D assets. Automotized and integrated AR app need some ingenious developments.

An interesting use case from Boeing ( using hololens to assist the mounting of cables) shows how they did to get an integrated and automatized AR app. Their AR solution architecture in 4 blocks :

  • A web service to design the new AR app (UX and workflow)
  • A call to legacy systems to collect Master Data and 3D data / assets
  • Creation of an integrated Packaged data = asset bundle for the AR
  • Creation of the specific AR app (Vuforia / Unity) , to be transfered to the stand alone system, the Hololens glass.

4 – concept of 3D asset as a master data

The usage of AR and VR becomes more important in many domains : From conception to maintenance and sales (configurator, catalogs …)

The consequence is that original CAD files can be transformed and used in different processes of your company, where it becomes a challenge to use high polygon from CAD applications into other 3D / VR / AR applications, where there is a need of lighter 3D assets, also with some needs of texture and rendering adjustment.

gIFT can be a solution , glTF defines an extensible, common publishing format for 3D content tools and services that streamlines authoring workflows and enables interoperable use of content across the industry.

The main challenge is to implement a good centralised and integrated 3D asset management strategy, considering them as important as your other key master data.

5 – service company and expert to design advanced AR / VR solutions , integrated in the enterprise information system.

The conception of advanced and integrated AR solutions for large companies needs some new expert combining knowlegde in 3D apps and experience in system integration.

This projects need new types of information system architecture taking in account the AR technologies.

PTC looks like a leader in providing efficient and scalable tools for large companies. PTC, owner of Vuforia is also exceling with other 3D / PLM management solutions like windchill , to smoothly integrate 3D management in all the processes and IT of the enterprise.

Sopra Steria , the french IS integration company, is also taking this role , bringing his system integration experience into the new AR /VR usages in the industry.

If you don’t want to invest in this kind of complex projects, for a first step in AR/VR or for some quick wins at a low budget , new content authoring solutions exist to build your AR app with some simple user interfaces and workflows : skylight by Upskill , worklink by Scope AR

6 – The need for an open AR Cloud

“A real time 3D (or spatial) map of the world, the AR cloud, will be the single most important software infrastructure in computing. Far more valuable than facebook social graph, or google page rank index” say Ori Inbar, Co-Founder and CEO of Augmented Reality.ORG. A promising prediction.

The AR cloud provide a persistant , multiuser and cross device AR landscape. It allows people to share experiences and collaborate. The most known AR cloud experience so far is the famous Pokemon Go game.

So far the AR map works using GPS or image recognition, or local point of cloud for a limited space / a building. The dream will be to copy the world as a point of cloud, for a global AR cloud landscape. A real time systems that could be used by robots, drones etc…

The AWE exhibition presented some interesting AR cloud initiative :

  • The Open AR Cloud Initiative launched at the event and had its first working session.
  • Some good SDK are now available to build your own local AR clouds : Wikitude an Immersal

Source : https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/augmented-reality-state-art-industry-fr%C3%A9d%C3%A9ric-niederberger/

 

How sustainable is the food packaging industry? – Food Dive

As more consumers search for sustainable packaging options, food and beverage companies are forced to make tough decisions about their products.

Shoppers and investors are increasingly looking for companies and brands to take the initiative on environmental issues. A Horizon Media study found 81% of millennials expect companies to make public commitments to good corporate citizenship and 66% of consumers will pay more for products from brands committed to environmentally friendly practices, according to the Nielsen Global Corporate Sustainability Report.

But more eco-friendly practices haven’t been easy for the food packaging industry. Designing eco-friendly packaging that can keep products fresh and endure temperature changes that come with cooking can be a challenge. Packaging companies told Food Dive they recently made moves to offer sustainable options with water-based ink and more compostable packaging, but have faced obstacles along the way. While some brands are aiming to only appear more sustainable, others are making slow efforts to be eco-friendly with new innovations and products.

For major food and beverage companies, the higher cost of sustainable materials and the struggle to keep food fresh are barriers. Production costs for sustainable options be about 25% more compared to traditional packaging. These materials also tend to be less effective in maintaining freshness, since packaging companies say plastic can have a tighter seal and keep out air better than other materials.

“That’s their compromise, it looks eco-friendly — but it’s not.” Damon Leach – Account representative at Green Rush Packaging

Some companies have found a way around the high costs. Damon Leach, an account representative at Green Rush Packaging, told Food Dive that a solution for some food companies has been to use material that looks recyclable to shoppers, but in reality, is not.

Instead of paying more for eco-friendly materials, companies have been picking material, like kraft paper, that looks more sustainable to consumers, he added. Leach said the products that appear to be more green do sell better.

Although Leach said more suppliers and consumers theoretically want sustainable packaging, those materials typically don’t have a long shelf life and consumers don’t want to pay the extra money. But some companies are still making an effort to pay more for eco-friendly packaging despite the challenges.

When will sustainable be the norm?

From producers and companies to retailers, consumers and recycling organizations, packaging can affect the whole supply chain. So the challenge for packaging manufacturers becomes determining what new innovations and materials are the best investments.

Randall LaVeau, business development manager at Interpress Technologies, which manufactures formed paperboard and plastic food packaging products, told Food Dive there is a huge push for more recycling in the marketplace. But he said it is hard to get an eco-friendly material that holds water but isn’t plastic and doesn’t degrade — a necessity for microwavable products that need water to cook.

Many companies are now working to develop recyclable packaging that can withstand heat and hold liquids, but LaVeau​ said there is still a lot of research and development to go before it is widespread.

“Everybody is in the shop trying to figure it out,” LaVeau said. “People have been working on it for the last 10 years or longer, they just haven’t had a good success for it.” 

Evo Ware

For companies that have made sustainability goals, the time is ticking to figure it out. Mondelez just announced its plans to make all their packaging recyclable by 2025. Nestlé, Unilever and PepsiCo have agreed to phase in packaging made from recyclable, compostable and biodegradable materials with more recycled content by 2025, but haven’t released specific details about their plans. In fact, a recent report identified Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Nestle as businesses contributing most to pollution.

But as these big companies push for more development on sustainable materials, that means cost could continue to be an obstacle. Although consumers say they are willing to pay more for sustainability, they don’t always pick up the more expensive options in stores.

“Just like anything else, when something new comes out… it is more expensive until they can work with it in time and maximize their efficiencies for the cost to come down,” LaVeau said.

New innovations in sustainable packages

Several companies have developed more sustainable options this year. For example, HelloFresh is rolling out more sustainable packaging for its meal kits with recyclable liners created by sustainable design company TemperPack.

And some new developments haven’t come into the mainstream yet. U.S. Department of Agriculture researchers have developed an edible, biodegradable packaging film made of casein, a milk protein, that can be wrapped around food to prevent spoilage.

Other companies are working to find new ways to help the environment. Wayne Shilka, vice president of innovation and technical support at Eagle Flexible Packaging, a printer of packaging in Chicago, has prioritized offering more sustainable options to their customers. Eagle Flexible Packaging uses a water-based ink because it doesn’t create any probable organic compounds that then go out into the atmosphere, making it more environmentally friendly, Shilka said.

“We are finding that sustainable packaging is getting more and more and more interest.”, Wayne Shilka – Vice president of Eagle Flexible Packaging

Six years ago, Eagle Flexible Packaging put together a compostable material for packaging, and about 100 companies discussed the option with them. Only one customer ended up using the compostable product because it cost more any other packaging option the company offered. Every year since, a few more customers have worked with them to outfit their products with compostable material, Shilka said.

As more companies turn to compostable and sustainable packaging, the price will come down and make it more appealing, Shilka added.

“It continues growing to the point that it’s becoming not mainstream, but it’s much more routine that we had people who are calling and are interested and are actually doing something sustainable,” Shilka said.

‘Recyclable to an extent’

While some companies work to find new recyclable materials, others are satisfied with current packaging options. Flexible packaging — which is any package whose shape can be readily changed, such as bags and pouches — is popular. Representatives at packaging companies said flexible packaging can be an issue for sustainability since it has multilayer films with plastic and paper that need to be separated to be recycled.

LaVeau said most of his products are “recyclable to an extent” because of the layers. Certain recycling mills can handle his products, but at others, consumers need to separate the packaging for recycling — which doesn’t always happen.

Green Rush Packaging has the same issue.

“We got to get the end users to separate and recycle better instead of just facilities otherwise it is just waste, bad for the environment,” Leach said. 

Flexible packaging can also provide a higher product-to-package ratio, which creates fewer emissions during transportation and ultimately uses less space in landfills.

Some companies stand by their use of packages that aren’t fully sustainable. Robert Reinders, president of Performance Packaging, a family owned corrugated box plant founded in 1995 by packaging professionals, told Food Dive that about 5% of his products are recyclable. He said flexible packaging is a sustainable option because it uses up less energy and prolongs the shelf life of the food so it eliminates food waste.

“There is all kinds of great benefits to flexible packaging that gets drowned out by the recycle, compostable needs,” Reinders said.

Falling behind other countries’ sustainable goals

In the last two years, more than 70 bills have been introduced in state legislatures regarding plastic bags — encompassing bans, fees and recycling programs. However, many of those laws have not impacted the food packaging industry.

compostable packaging

In comparison, countries across the globe are increasing their efforts and goals when it comes to sustainability for both food and beverage product packaging. But U.S. companies are still in the development stage on many of their innovations.

The Singapore Packaging Agreement — a joint initiative by government, industry and NGOs to reduce packaging waste — has averted about 46,000 metric tons of packaging waste during the past 11 years, according to Eco-Business. In Australia, national, state and territory environment ministers have agreed that 100% of Australian packaging will be recyclable, compostable or reusable by 2025.

Vancouver, Canada has adopted a ban on the distribution of polystyrene foam cups and containers, as well as restrictions on disposable cups and plastic shopping bags. The U.K. also plans to eliminate plastic waste by 2042.

As countries around the world change their packaging to adjust to these sustainability goals, Reinders said U.S. companies will likely adopt more changes. And as more CPG makers start mass producing sustainable options around the world, he said it will drive prices down globally.

“I was at Nestlé headquarters in Switzerland and they are currently making the efforts to find different materials and different processes so they can be recyclable,” Reinders said. “It’s all starting now. The more the big guys get into it, the better it will be.”

Source : https://www.fooddive.com/news/how-sustainable-is-the-food-packaging-industry/539089/

 

Edge Computing Emerges as Megatrend in Automation – Design News

Edge computing technology is quickly becoming a megatrend in industrial control, offering a wide range of benefits for factory automation applications.  While the major cloud suppliers are expanding, new communications hardware and software technology are beginning to provide new solutions compared to the previous offerings used in factory automation.

B&R Industrial Automation, edge computing, automation control
A future application possibility that illustrates both the general concept and potential impact of edge computing in automation and control is edge data being visualized on a tablet in a brownfield application. (Image source: B&R Industrial Automation)

“The most important benefit [compared to existing solutions] will be interoperability—from the device level to the cloud,” John Kowal, director of business development for B&R Industrial Automation, told Design News. “So it’s very important that communications be standards-based, as you see with OPC UA TSN. ‘Flavors’ of Ethernet including ‘flavors’ of TSN should not be considered as providing interoperable edge communications, although they will function perfectly well in a closed system. Interoperability is one of the primary differences between previous solutions. OPC UA TSN is critical to connecting the edge device to everything else.”

Emerging Technology Solutions

Kowal added that, in legacy installations, gateways will be necessary to translate data from proprietary systems—ideally using OPC UA over standard Ethernet to the cloud. An edge computing device can also provide this gateway translation capability. “One of the benefits of Edge technology is its ability to perform analytics and optimization locally, and therefore achieve faster response for more dynamic applications, such as adjusting line speeds and product accumulation to balance the line. You do not expect this capability of a gateway,’” Kowal added.

Sari Germanos of B&R added that these comments about edge computing can also be equally applied to the cloud. “With edge, you are using fog instead of cloud with a gateway. Edge controllers need things like redundancy and backup, while cloud services do that for you automatically,” Germanos said. He also noted that cloud computing generally makes data readily accessible from anywhere in the world, while the choice of serious cloud providers for industrial production applications is limited. Edge controllers are likely to have more local features and functions, though the responsibility for tasks like maintenance and backup falls on the user.

Factory Automation Applications

Kowal noted that you could say that any automation application would benefit from collecting and analyzing data at the edge. But the key is what kind of data, what aspects of operations, and what are the expectations of analytics that can deliver actionable productivity improvements? “If your goal is uptime, then you will want to collect data on machine health, such as bearing frequencies, temperatures, lubrication and coolant levels, increased friction on mechanical systems, gauging, and metrology,” he said.

Some of the same logic applies to product quality. Machine wear and tear leads to reduced yield which can, in turn, be defined in terms of OEE data gathering that may already be taking place, but will not be captured at shorter intervals and automatically communicated and analyzed.

Capturing Production Capacity as well as Machine and Materials Availability

Beyond the maintenance and production efficiency aspects, Kowal said that users should consider capturing production capacity, machine and raw material availability, and constraint and output data. These will be needed to schedule smaller batch sizes, tier more effectively into ordering and production scheduling systems, and ultimately improve delivery times to customers.

Edge control technology also offers benefits compared to IoT gateway products. Kowal said that he’s never been big on splitting hairs with technology definitions—at least not from the perspective of results. But fundamentally, brownfield operators tend to want gateways to translate between their installed base of equipment, which may not even be currently networked, and the cloud. Typically, these are boxes equipped with legacy communications interfaces that act as a gateway to get data from the control system without a controls retrofit, which can be costly, risky, and even ineffective.

“We have done some work in this space, though B&R’s primary market is in new equipment,” Kowal added. “In that case, you have many options how to implement edge computing on a new machine or production line. You can use smart sensors and other devices direct to cloud or to an edge controller. The edge controller or computing resource can take many form factors. It can be a machine controller, an industrial PC that’s also used for other tasks like HMI or cell control, a small PLC used within the machine, or a standalone dedicated edge controller.”

Boosted Memory, Processing, and Connections

Germanos noted that industrial controllers were not designed to be edge controllers; they are typically designed to control one machine versus a complete production line.  Edge controllers have built-in redundancy to maintain production line operation.

“If I was designing a new machine, cell, line, or facility, I would set up the machine controllers as the edge controller/computers rather than add another piece of control hardware or gateway,” Germanos said. “Today, you can get machine controllers with plenty of memory, processing power, and network connections. I would not select a control platform unless it supports OPC UA, and I would strongly urge selecting a technology provider that supports the OPC UA TSN movement known as “The Shapers,” so that as this new standard for Industrial Ethernet evolves, I would be free from the ‘flavors’ of Ethernet.”

His recommendation is to use a platform that runs a real-time operating system for the machinery on one core or, using a Hypervisor, whatever other OS might be appropriate for any additional applications that run on Windows or Linux.

Source : https://www.designnews.com/automation-motion-control/edge-computing-emerges-megatrend-automation/27888481159634

 

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